Revisiting Barbara Arrowsmith Young

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(originally published in 2013 for The Chook House when I had only recently started on my dog behaviour journey, but still reads well today)

It is a winter’s night, but not cold.

Barbara Arrowsmith Young tells us of her usual winter’s night in Canada where temperatures hover around minus forty. I wonder if she is speaking Fahrenheit or celsius. Either way it is nothing I can imagine.

But Perth people don’t really do winter or the rain.

The audience is mainly women between 40 and 50 in slacks. Like me. A queue has formed for a snappy white wine before the lecture begins. Not a skirt in sight. Trouser wearing women – practical types. Women who think they can change things – including their own and others’ brains. That’s the business they’re in. Mostly educators, psychologists. Probably mothers too.

My friend works in Mindfulness. She is well in-touch with her mind and its capabilities. She knows she needs a lot of sleep. She tells me how working with people to develop mindfulness “deepens their keel in the water.” What a steadying, comforting image. Indeed for most minds it is a rough sea out there, but what a difference a solid keel makes.

Barbara tells us her own story first. As a child she had such severe learning disabilities that she was a danger to herself. Despite so many issues she managed to learn through sheer determination and persistence. It helped that her mother was an educator and her father a creative inventor. But it was not till adulthood when she discovered the work of a physician, who had studied a patient who had had a bullet lodged in his brain, that she uncovered the source of her problems. Seeing the similarities between her own cognitive fog and that of the damaged man, she was able to locate her disability and pin-point it to the angular gyrus in the cerebral cortex. She then devised exercises to teach herself the things she could not do. She worked at the exercises, which were always slightly above her level of skill, till she mastered them and then she made them harder. She changed her brain, at a time when medicine really didn’t believe it was possible to do so.

It is accepted today that the brain is changeable. Neuroplasticityis studied and yet in schools we don’t give children the cognitive exercises that would help them to change their brains. Instead if a child is poor at hand writing we give them permission to type. She didn’t really go in-depth as to the specific exercises she has developed to help the various disorders of learning, but gave examples of how countless people have changed their brain’s functioning through the use of exercises in the areas that they have trouble with. She said people needed to lose the supports they had developed to cope with the learning disorder and approach it head on.

Again I thought of dogs.

Dogs too can change their brains. And we can be their teachers. I have a sense that changing a dog’s brain may be simpler than changing your child’s, especially since asking your child to join you in some cognitive exercises might be harder than you think. At least with a dog there is always food rewards. Just like people, dogs have the ability to learn new things. Everybody needs the right environment to learn. Dogs and children need not to be anxious, not ill, not in pain, not sleep deprived and not chronically stressed. The old adage “you can’t teach a dog new tricks” may not be true after all.

Think of the dog-reactive dog that flies into a rage every time it sees another dog. To improve behaviour he/she must practice being calm in front of other dogs. It is best to work just below threshold with dogs like this. We don’t want him/her to tip over into non-thinking dog. Brain-switched-off dog. One that is just shouting – “go away, go away.” But he/she must see other dogs to learn the new way. Neurons need to make new connections, instead of flying down the well-worn path of reactivity. I think of the laminex table and its marbled pattern – why now it resembles dendrites. A filigree of filamentous nerve endings reaching out for connections. A finger can trace the path to get from one point to the other, but the route can change. So too the destination. Left isolated, apart from other dogs, our Cujo will never improve his/her dog reactivity. Leaving maths alone won’t make your arithmetic better. Buying a piano and leaving it idle will not turn you into a pianist.

She described the feeling of living with a learning disorder as walking through life with a heavy pack of rocks on your back. But when people changed their brains they were released of their heavy loads. Previously difficult tasks became easy and free of stress. A stressed brain cannot relearn. At any age change was possible. For all species.

Like a dance. The neurons that fire together, wire together, and the more they fire together the stronger the connections between those neurons become. I guess this is the basis of learning. We can all do it. Change our brains to become peaceful, calm and plastic.

You can take the dog out of the outback but you can’t take the outback out of the dog…

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When humans take on the role of rescuer they can feel they are giving a dog a better life. I get it. We all think our life is the one to be aspired to.

If you are an outback dog chances are you have developed some pretty good survival strategies. You are probably pretty good at holding on to your resources and keeping others away from them – maybe you have had to, to get enough to survive. But survive you have, and survived so well that you have passed these genes on to your offspring. You may have had to use aggression to get what you want, as resources are scarce.

Your mother might have been stressed because she suffered malnutrition and fearfulness, but she still went on to conceive and carry the pups to full term.

Along come some rescuers and they want you to have a better life. They would like you to have the benefit of health care and a comfy bed. They take you away from your mother, who they sterilise and leave in the community, and they take you and your siblings on a stressful journey to Perth to start a new life. Worse still they take the mother too, and expect her to adapt to a widely different life from the one she has successfully navigated till now.

Unsuspecting dog adopters are thrilled at the honey coloured fur and the street dog look of puppies that seem shy, but not aggressive, and who will surely grow out of that. Dog adopters are not thinking about the fact that maternal stress changes the way the future brain of these dogs responds to stress. They are not thinking that shyness tends towards fearfulness and later aggressive responses, as the dog matures.

Future adopters do not have a clue that they are adopting a dog with inherited traits that make it good for surviving a life in the bush camp, and not so good at negotiating the cafe strip.

Instincts for survival are not the necessary requirement of dogs whose biggest threat is missing out on sofa time.

We now know that the mother’s genes and the mother’s mother’s genes are all playing a role in the future temperament of the dog. This is why it is important to know what the mother felt, and how stressed she was. This is why it is important to not buy from puppy mills or adopt from bitches who have been distressed and in a state of emotional and physical hardship. This is why it is important to select pups from breeders who are selecting for temperament, NOT colour.

It is happening all over the world – In England rescuers bring dogs from the continent to live in England and in Australia dogs are “rescued” from the North of Australia or from Asia. The problem is that the potential adopters are not after an animal with severe anxiety related illness who is a square peg in a round hole – adopters are after a family pet and many of these dogs are never going to be able to fit this bill. They live with ongoing anxiety and aggression with the aim of keeping themselves safe, and their strategies, that would be quite successful in the world they came from, are not acceptable, or safe, in the urban environments into which they have been parachuted.

What would be better would be to give the dogs the health care they need, in the environments they live in, and to neuter all animals so they cannot continue to breed. The communities they come from would benefit from education into the care of the animals that surround them, and those animals, to my mind, would be better to live out their days in the environment they have evolved to be successful in.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why Not Pass The Puppy?

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In this image a trainer demonstrates conditioning a pup to being handled – no force is used.

Recently I read the responses a client had given in her Behaviour Q (which is the basis to the history taking ahead of a behaviour consultation) and noted how during puppy class her pup was often put in the “settle pose” for behaviour that was considered unwanted as well as the pup’s perceived comfort whilst being handed around during “pass the puppy”.

These are two antiquated and out-dated exercises that are still practiced in some puppy classes. So why not pass the puppy? Why not make pups submit to the settle pose?

It is true that we want your puppy to be friendly and affiliative with new people, but the way to ensure this is to expose the puppy, when he/she is neurodevelopmentally ready to do so, with the experience of new people.

The experience of new people should be that they are warm and nurturing – not giants that pick you up and pass you around as if you are their next meal.

The pup makes the choice to engage and that engagement results in a positive association – yummy treats. “Passing the puppy” takes away the puppy’s control and essentially allows a fearful puppy (maybe undetected) to be overwhelmed. This is what flooding looks like. A puppy that is worried about the approach of strangers should not be passed around as it confirms to the pup that the approach of new people is scary. If a pup cannot move away he/she may learn that a better strategy to keep these scary people away will be to act more threatening him/herself.

The “settle pose” was described as scruffing the dog till he desisted. It is used when a pup, who is acting in ways we don’t like, is held by the scruff, and asked to settle. The thought behind this is that it shows the dog who is in control – you – and that struggling or displaying any signs of resistance is pointless. This is relatively easy to do to a small pup and is very reinforcing for owners, as they immediately feel they have stopped whatever it is they don’t like and have therefore solved a problem. Trainers may tell owners that this is what a mother dog might do too and so therefore it is natural and normal and allows an effective way to communicate with your dog. Like you are speaking their language.

The problem with this is that it is untrue. Mother dogs do not scruff their puppies. Yes they move them like this, very gently when they need to, up until a certain age, but they do not grab them by the back of the neck and shake them.

And besides we are not dogs’ mothers. It is very likely that pups do not mistake us for their mothers. We are humans and we are scary enough.

When we physically restrain a dog and punish him with our touch we teach a dog that we will use force to get our way and that we do not care that they are experiencing distress. Their subtle signals do not work on us. We are not listening to what the body language is telling us (“I am afraid”, “I am overwhelmed”,  “I am over threshold”) and we continue on till the dog gives up. This neither helps the dog learn a behaviour that we want, (no replacement behaviour is taught) nor does it change the negative association into a positive one. It is unhelpful in so many ways. Later, as the dog grows, the “settle pose” can no longer be easily administered and many a person has been bitten attempting to assert themselves over a worried dog. The dog will then be labelled “dominant” and treated with more punishment. The cycle of misunderstanding will continue, till eventually the dog bites and bites hard. Then the dog will be euthanased or rehomed.

We do want the dog to be able to be relaxed, even on his back, perhaps being cradled in your lap – but this is done through slow manipulation of a relaxed and calm pup – a puppy that has come to be very trusting of what human touch means.

A pup receives deep, slow, long pats so he lies down and then once he has chosen to lie down, then he can be gently stroked along his belly. The pup is not forced into any position and  is not held down against his will. The pup is not scruffed.

Dr Karen Overall DACVB (my behaviour guru) says: “scruffing by humans is inappropriate to use in dogs”. That alone should be enough of a reason to stop this exercise.

Please give pups CHOICE, recognise when they are fearful and start making positive associations with the triggers of their fearfulness.

 

 

 

Thinking about Enrichment

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Recently I felt like I needed a break from the internet and scrolling through my instagram, or Facebook. I was yearning for something from an older time. I find it difficult to switch off and find that my thoughts are forever returning to my caseload.

I thought of a jigsaw puzzle. I had remembered loving them when I was a preteen – when the holiday season was long. The school books had been bought and covered, swimming lessons finished, and the buffalo grass too hot and spiky to lay on. Inside, in a cool dark dining room, a place on the large round table would be made to do a puzzle – usually an Alpine scene (a gift from an overseas relative) – Swiss cottages and snow covered peaks.

The jigsaw puzzle fulfilled in me a need to do something repetitive and strangely soothing. It incorporated more than one sense – mainly visual, but also tactile – enjoying the click and the snap of the perfectly fitted next piece.

Absorbed in the pieces and how they might fit together the task seemed to push all other thoughts from my mind. It is strangely quietening, like lap swimming, like knitting, like colouring in – all the mundanities that I find soothing.

If I had been truly compulsive in this task then no dinner would get cooked, no dog would get walked and no laundry done. It would then become somewhat of a problem.

One of the core emotions is the need to SEEK – to locate resources required for living, as well as to find mates with whom to procreate. In our dogs we mostly take away their desire for procreation by neutering them and so the desire to SEEK can only be fulfilled if they are given something to do in their search for life sustaining resources. This is why food enrichment is such a vital and gratifying thing for dogs to do.

When we give dogs a way to source their food, through enrichment, we allow this neuronal pathway to fire and the neurotransmitters associated with this work makes the animal feel good. SEEKING works best when more than one sense is used – and hence the power of nose work, combined with manipulation.

It is interesting to see dogs who are not used to using enrichment – they often lack the ability to work their noses. Dogs who are anxious are also less inclined to take the time to sniff their world, and hence the suggestion that caregivers allow their anxious dogs the time to sniff more, and move less.

I felt the world slow down and my mind free itself of clutter as I clicked the small pieces together and watched the puzzle take shape.

Some of my patients have their SEEKING system in over-drive and these animals are the ones who engage in compulsive behaviours. These animals are so driven to perform a task over and over again that they do it to the detriment of other needs. They may become so focussed on this behaviour that they are difficult to interrupt from it and can even be aggressive if something, or someone, interferes in their drive to perform the behaviour.

I liken these dogs to addicts (the “crack-heads” of the canine world) – as their brains are in such desperate need of the chemicals released when they perform the behaviour – and after a certain amount of time – the behaviour is no longer pleasurable, but something simply required to be done, just to feel normal. It sometimes starts as a coping mechanism but later becomes so necessary that an animal cannot be in the world without doing the behaviour, and so he/she begins to look for ways to perform the behaviour more and more.

Allowing dogs adequate ways to SEEK from puppyhood may help to prevent some compulsive behaviours from beginning, but there are a percentage of dogs who have this tendency inherited, and will develop compulsion, despite adequate outlets for more appropriate displays of SEEKING. Some breeds have been developed with a strong drive to perform a certain work and when this work is denied they may develop a compulsive behaviour that in some way resembles the work for which they were designed. For any dog a job needs to be found that fulfils some innate need to SEEK so that the brain does not develop its own less profitable work to do.

Find the equivalent of the jigsaw puzzle for your dog – something soothing, that creates a calm brain, that removes clutter, and, after it is done, leaves a feeling of success.

 

 

 

 

Socialisation – what it’s NOT and how important is it…

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Socialisation is not taking a small puppy to Bunnings and have it bombarded with attention and pats.

Socialisation is not taking an adolescent rescue dog down to dog beach to “play” with all and sundry.

Socialisation is not taking a fearful pup to a cafe and asking people to greet your pup while is cowers in your arms.

In a natural setting socialisation takes place when the pup, with mother near by, meets and interacts with new things. It happens in a safe way. It happens when the dog is neurodevelopmentally ready for the interaction. It happens because the mother dog is feeling safe and knows the interaction is safe too. She is not about to introduce her precious pup to something she deems is unsafe. Everything she is introducing the puppy to is something that later the puppy may experience as a “safe” object/state/place to be around. After a certain period of time, about 12-14 weeks of age, the pup becomes fully weaned from the mother and separates from her, and after this time anything newly introduced may be greeted with mistrust and a fearful response. It makes sense not to stay open, infinitely. Otherwise you might just bound up to the first tiger you meet. It is a good survival mechanism and has evolved over tens of thousands of years.

In normal development the mother is also able to move away from the puppy – to source food for herself, to toilet and to exercise, and so a pup learns that time away from mother is normal. Independence is gradually grown, not abruptly enforced. Bitches who are not allowed to move away from their puppies – as in a puppy farm scenario – may not be tolerant and nurturing in the same way that a mother who has time away can be. Then puppies are drastically separated, whilst at the same time forced into frighteningly new scenarios with all new sensations and with no nurturer to safely retreat to.

When we take on the job of socialising a young animal because the pup is no longer with its mother it is important to remember that socialisation experiences will only be good and beneficial to the pup if the feeling at the time is one of relaxation and associated with positive emotions. The pup must not be forced to interact, but rather make the choice to.

If the experience is frightening and causes the puppy to want to avoid and repel the new person/thing/place then the experience may be creating a very different outcome from want we aimed for. Fearful early experiences can create later phobias.

Ideal socialisation in a breeding setting would be a breeder who is able to expose puppies to all the future possibilities of its destined home. Some proactive breeders take part in programs such as Puppy Culture – where they follow a timetable of introductions ensuring a wide range of future possibilities. But a good rule of thumb is to consider all the senses and making sure puppies are experiencing a wide range of surfaces and obstacles, unusual sounds, smells, food textures, background noises, sights.  Puppies should be faced with some challenges and some mild frustrations that help to build impulse control. They should be being exposed to a wide range of people, other animals and environments consistent with their future homes.

CAN Socialisation FIX everything?

Recently I had a internet conversation with a person involved in dog rescue who had been worried by my labelling of a post of a dog as “another reactive rescue” and then we discussed how there is indeed a prevalence of behavioural problems in dogs whose mothers had experienced stress and distress in pregnancy, whether they be purebred dogs or dogs from rescue.

Sadly even pedigree dogs may be being bred in environments where mothers are stressed and distressed. Paying a lot of money for a dog does not preclude future behavioural problems. There is evidence that stress during pregnancy and during the neonatal period creates permanent effects on the ability of the offspring to deal with stressful experiences later in life. These animals may be permanently effected by their poor start and this may be reflected in later behavioural abnormalities.

Purchasers of puppies need to have reliable information about the source of their dog  and know that the mother was well-fed, well cared-for, emotionally stable and responsive to her puppies.

People adopting dogs sometimes assume that purchasing a puppy at 8 weeks of age is like buying a blank drive – ready to have information uploaded and stored, but the truth is that so much is already downloaded and installed, and sometimes, continuing the computer analogy, corrupted from the get-go by the early history and the genes inherited.

 

 

 

Why I don’t suggest Boot camp…

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Have you heard it said that when your car needs fixing you send it to a qualified mechanic and therefore when your dog has problems it makes sense to send him/her away too…

The problem with this analogy is that a dog is not as simple as a car. A canine is a biological organism and an emotional one at that. A better analogy would be to consider your relationship with a dependent and ask yourself if you will improve your relationship with a child by sending him/her to boarding school?

To build a relationship with a dog you need to spend quality time. I suggest this time be spent building a strong relationship based on mutual respect and trust. So how do you get a dog to trust you?

Firstly, and most importantly, you give a dog predictability and control.

You make yourself understandable by being a benevolent leader who rewards the dog for following cues and teaches cues that are understood. A good leader of a dog does not lose his/her temper or teach through the use of punishment.

When you send a dog away you create stress – new place, new people, other dogs. Dogs and people do not learn well when they are stressed. In fact stress damages the learning and memory areas of the brain. Dogs can feel so overwhelmed by the process that they may appear obedient (learnt helplessness) during camp but this is seldom a long lasting change. Dogs attending camp are taught through aversive means and sometimes even have shock collars placed upon them whilst under such “care”.

Ending up with a well trained and happy dog does not happen in a few days, or even in a few weeks, at boot camp, but rather comes about by the slow, kind and consistent work of a caregiver who has their dog in their front of mind. Look at the dog in front of you and design a plan under the guidance your behaviour veterinarian and their recommended trainer if you want to achieve a life time of happy dog memories. The work may not be instantaneous but the change will come and it will be long-lasting, ethically-created and be mutually beneficial to you and the dog.

 

Shut Up! Barking behaviour explained…

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Firstly, the caregiver needs to know that barking is a natural behaviour of dogs and one that they have been selected for throughout history. A dog’s barking has served the humans who live with him/her to be alerted to intruders and to announce the arrival of visitors. So some barking is normal!

Of course there is a time when barking behaviour, because of the frequency, intensity and duration of the behaviour, becomes problematic – both to the caregiver and to the dog.

It is such behaviour we are talking about today.

Let’s think about dog vocalising:

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Dog barking is an attempt to communicate to both other dogs and to caregivers.

Distance decreasing signals are designed to solicit care and attention. Dogs with separation distress may classically engage in whining and crying, as well as bark in a monotonal way with intermittent breaks as if saying: “Hello – where are you?”

Distance increasing signals are designed to keep intruders away and alert the caregivers to a change in the environment. This kind of barking tends to be loud and insistent and is related to a disturbance, noise or visual threat. Most people actually want their dogs to perform this action when required, but it is not in a dog’s repertoire to easily distinguish between friend and foe, and so a dog that performs this aroused barking may need to given extra protection from the sight and sounds of what is occurring outside of their home to have this barking decrease.

Most complaints come about because of repetitive and insistent barking, and many times a complaint can signal to caregivers that their dog is not coping when they are home alone. Some owners may be unaware, till the complaint is made, that their companion has a barking problem, if it is solely about separation distress. Separation distress barking is a serious welfare concern.

It is always advisable to record the behaviour of concern, and so if it is occurring when you are not home this can be done on a laptop set up to record the dog. Viewing the behaviour can allow you to distinguish the emotion behind the behaviour and then you are in a better position to address the problem.

Some canines have been selected for barking more than others and some breeds are known for their high propensity to bark – eg Maltese terriers, Jack Russells, Dachshunds, working breeds, to name a few. Some of these dogs may engage in barking behaviour when they are aroused by play and therefore it is important to keep play between yourself and these dogs as a less arousing activity. Some dogs may have had their barking behaviour reinforced – for instance barking before being fed and then getting the bowl given to them simply encourages further barking. Feed when silent.

The most efficient way to reduce barking is to first identify the cause and see if this can be avoided and the environment managed to reduce the exposure to the trigger that begins a bout of barking.

I never suggest the use of punishment devices such as shock collars or citronella spray collars as these have been associated with a worsening of anxiety.

Many patients I have seen have had their conditions deteriorate after the use of a shock collar, and, even if barking has decreased, a replacement problematic behaviour has emerged.

If your dog has an issue with barking – take is seriously – and consider a vet behaviourist appointment to treat this behaviour both compassionately and scientifically.

Nicole Lobry de Bruyn BSC BVMS MANZCVS

Let’s walk the dog

What do I think a dog walking with their human should look like?

Not like what I so often see – that for sure!

My house looks over a dog park and the beauty of this means that I can view from my kitchen window a large array of dogs and their caregivers. What I often see however frustrates me.

What I see is:

  • humans looking at their screens, or with their ears plugged into their headphones – oblivious to their dog’s movements and interactions, so often with their back to their dog.
  • humans who let their dogs off their lead BEFORE they reach the dog off leash area and then madly chastise them for running after a cat or a child on the street.
  • humans who stand around in groups chatting while their dogs build in arousal and frustration and then who have altercations with each other.
  • humans who let their exuberant dogs run full bore at other less exuberant dogs and who thereby ruin the shy dog’s experience of the park.
  • humans who run and leave their dog behind and never seem to look back to check what their pooch is up to.
  • humans who talk on their phone, again leaving their dog to greet without anyone watching to see how the interaction is going.
  • humans who only call their dogs when it’s time to leave or if they are doing something wrong.
  • humans who use retractable leads.
  • humans who believe over aroused running, barking and chasing after birds, balls or sticks is actually good for their dog.
  • humans who let an unleashed dog approach a leashed dog, saying loudly that their dog is friendly when the person with the leashed dog is asking for distance.
  • humans who let their children approach unknown canines.

What I wish to see more of when I observe people out with their dogs is caregivers engaging with their dogs in ways that bring joy to both parties.

I suggest:

  • allowing your dog to sniff his world – for as long as he likes.
  • only letting your dog greet other dogs who are also off lead, but whilst greeting WATCH your dog for the body language he shows so you can see when he or the other pooch is uncomfortable and you can help disconnect the encounter by calling your dog to you.

  • this means your dog should be good at coming – perhaps practice this a lot in low distraction environments before imagining your dog might be able to do this when arousal is high and there are many competing interests to deal with.
  • take time during the walk to bond and work with your dog to build trust and reliability – call back to you often, for no reason, other than to reward (carry food) and then release again.
  • leashing your dog when you see another person coming towards you with their dog  on a leash and giving them distance so the dogs are not forced to greet on lead.
  • teach your dog not to overwhelm other dogs or people but how to be calm and polite when greeting.
  • keep moving so dogs do not become bored and frustrated.

Happy dog walking…

Say No to Punishment

When it is suggested to caregivers to use a shock device they are often told “it won’t hurt the dog.” This is knuckle headed in so many ways.

Sometimes sellers of these products even claim they “tickle” just enough to get the dog to stop what they are doing.

Some owners may have tried the device on themselves and claim they can hardly feel it. If that is the case then why use a device like this at all? By definition for punishment to work it must be aversive enough and occur within 0.5 seconds of the behaviour you are intending to stop. This means two things – the animal is still performing the behaviour you are wishing to eradicate, and then you are applying some physical correction immediately after it. This does not set up a dog to succeed.

An example of positive punishment at work is when you place your hand on hot plate. Immediately you are “punished” and you may never do something like this again.  Yet we don’t teach children not to touch a hot plate by putting their hand on one – instead we instruct, we manage the environment and they learn. Most shock devices are being used over and over again to deliver what is akin to abuse. This is neither effective punishment or humane.

A shock device may stop some unwanted behaviour, but the question caregivers should ask is at what cost.

Often these devices cause momentary pain that does immediately halt the behaviour, but if the behaviour is rooted in fear and anxiety (as most unwanted behaviour is) this is not a long-term solution. The emotion behind the behaviour has not gone away and may even have been made worse.

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Treating behaviour problems humanely and with positive reinforcement techniques has been shown to be both effective and without harm – whereas using punishment in the form of a shock device or an aversive collar can lead to the worsening of aggression, a change to compulsive behaviours or physical illness.

In my mind these devices should be banned. Most caregivers are not equipped to use them, and most trainers who advise them would be better not working with any animals at all.

 

Canine Cooperative Care

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Every dog can benefit from learning how to comfortably handle a routine examination and the common veterinary procedures they may have to face during their life time, conscious.

To be honest most veterinary procedures are not painful (and for those that are then an anaesethetic should be used), but for some animals, even simple things have become a source of panic and fear. Some dogs may be so fearful that they then pose a threat to the humans who are attempting to perform the procedures.

Dogs are often forced to endure a procedure before they have been taught to perform all the necessary steps that make up the procedure.

They have received no reinforcement for their cooperation and may have even been punished for struggling against a procedure, thereby learning further negative associations with handling and care.

Let’s take, for example, having a rectal temperature taken: this may involve placing the dog on a table, restricting the dog’s movement, whilst lifting the tail and then inserting the thermometer. If the dog has not been taught to associate all of these individual components with a reward, but is expected to deal with the restraint and the discomfort, the dog may, over time, become more and more reluctant to have the simple procedure done. If, on the other hand, the whole procedure is taught, and each step of the procedure linked with a high value reward, then the dog learns that the event is something positive and he/she will likely participate in the procedure, as he/she would in any other learnt event. The earlier a dog learns to make a positive association with care required the easier it will be for the dog and the caregiver. Overcoming past negative experiences can be fraught.

More often than not caregivers expect dogs to submit to their physical pressure, yet pressure and restraint is a natural thing to fight against. “Fighting back” is hard-wired in animals to allow them to escape the grip of predators, and can be stimulated by simple procedures such as placing dogs in unnatural positions (being tipped off their feet) or that involve force and a feeling of being unable to escape.

Just because we think an animal shouldn’t be afraid does not mean that what they are feeling is not real. If animals are acting afraid the terror is REAL.

The canine cooperative care movement takes its lead from zoo animal trainers who have taught tigers to have blood taken voluntarily and lions to open their mouths on cue to have dental examinations. It is bizarre to think that we might struggle with a three kilogram Chihuahua who won’t allow a caregiver to clip his nails, but the fault lies not with the uncooperative Chihuahua, but with the animal care professionals who have not adequately educated the caregivers on how to condition their dogs to partner with them in their husbandry needs.

Times are a changing (hallelujah) and now vet students are no longer taught to upend dogs on to their sides and hold them down to clip their nails. Vet students (at least the ones I teach! ) are now taught how to desensitise those dogs who are afraid of nail clipping and to teach others that they need not be afraid in the first place. If they are not yet ready for a procedure that truly MUST be accomplished today, then sedation that works, should be used so that fearful memory is not created.

Here is a recent example of some cooperative care with a fearful patient, called Cash. Cash had recently been diagnosed as having Addison’s Disease and this serious medical condition means he now needs bloods taken every three months to keep an eye on his electrolytes. Previous to his illness, handling had always been stressful for Cash and he had had sedation to have anything intrusive performed.

His caregivers worked hard in a short period of time to condition him to a wearing a muzzle, to lie on his side and have his limbs handled, all with the aim of collecting blood in as low stress a method as possible. Prior to this video he had not performed this behaviour anywhere but his home and with his caregivers and trainer.

This is Cash – after about ten days of training – and is an example of how giving a dog time and choice allowed for a successful blood collection (with more improvement to be expected over time). This shows that the procedure was not time-consuming, despite the hiccups – it took 15 minutes – and resulted in a dog that did not need to be sedated, was safe for caregiver and veterinarians, and maintained a patient who was not made worse by experiencing fear or panic.

There are many good example of trainers working to help caregivers give their dogs a happy and low stress veterinary experience.

Here are some examples that should inspire you to excellence in canine cooperative care:

Laura Monaco Torelli

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCH_dmcusS0b17WLJhb0WE5w

Chirag Patel – Domesticated Manners

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEx7qRAzUH_nmQn_hiLo2Ig

And locally – Sonya Bevan – Dog Charming

https://www.youtube.com/user/Zurison

Need to find a local course? – Manners N More Canine Cooperative Care classes

https://www.facebook.com/events/1584064275022668/