Firstly, the caregiver needs to know that barking is a natural behaviour of dogs and one that they have been selected for throughout history. A dog’s barking has served the humans who live with him/her to be alerted to intruders and to announce the arrival of visitors. So some barking is normal!
Of course there is a time when barking behaviour, because of the frequency, intensity and duration of the behaviour, becomes problematic – both to the caregiver and to the dog.
It is such behaviour we are talking about today.
Let’s think about dog vocalising:
Dog barking is an attempt to communicate to both other dogs and to caregivers.
Distance decreasing signals are designed to solicit care and attention. Dogs with separation distress may classically engage in whining and crying, as well as bark in a monotonal way with intermittent breaks as if saying: “Hello – where are you?”
Distance increasing signals are designed to keep intruders away and alert the caregivers to a change in the environment. This kind of barking tends to be loud and insistent and is related to a disturbance, noise or visual threat. Most people actually want their dogs to perform this action when required, but it is not in a dog’s repertoire to easily distinguish between friend and foe, and so a dog that performs this aroused barking may need to given extra protection from the sight and sounds of what is occurring outside of their home to have this barking decrease.
Most complaints come about because of repetitive and insistent barking, and many times a complaint can signal to caregivers that their dog is not coping when they are home alone. Some owners may be unaware, till the complaint is made, that their companion has a barking problem, if it is solely about separation distress. Separation distress barking is a serious welfare concern.
It is always advisable to record the behaviour of concern, and so if it is occurring when you are not home this can be done on a laptop set up to record the dog. Viewing the behaviour can allow you to distinguish the emotion behind the behaviour and then you are in a better position to address the problem.
Some canines have been selected for barking more than others and some breeds are known for their high propensity to bark – eg Maltese terriers, Jack Russells, Dachshunds, working breeds, to name a few. Some of these dogs may engage in barking behaviour when they are aroused by play and therefore it is important to keep play between yourself and these dogs as a less arousing activity. Some dogs may have had their barking behaviour reinforced – for instance barking before being fed and then getting the bowl given to them simply encourages further barking. Feed when silent.
The most efficient way to reduce barking is to first identify the cause and see if this can be avoided and the environment managed to reduce the exposure to the trigger that begins a bout of barking.
I never suggest the use of punishment devices such as shock collars or citronella spray collars as these have been associated with a worsening of anxiety.
Many patients I have seen have had their conditions deteriorate after the use of a shock collar, and, even if barking has decreased, a replacement problematic behaviour has emerged.
If your dog has an issue with barking – take is seriously – and consider a vet behaviourist appointment to treat this behaviour both compassionately and scientifically.
Nicole Lobry de Bruyn BSC BVMS MANZCVS