Canine Body Language

IMG_5732

The caregiver should look at the WHOLE dog, in context, but sometimes an observer can break the dog into body parts and over a few minutes take note of the following.

This list can help caregivers recognise stress, and I suggest caregivers get familiar with these signs in their own dogs and note the triggers that cause these reactions:

 Mouth/Expression – look for

  • Tight brow, furrowed – ear position can signal this
  • Pulled back commissures of lips, grimace – anxiety, stress
  • Closed mouth
  • Panting – commonly a short dry pant, some dogs however can hypersalivate
  • Baring teeth – distance increasing signal – threat – the more teeth shown the more defensive the dog
  • Turn head – polite withdrawal, social withdrawal, asking for space
  • Lip lick
  • Stress yawn – often repetitive
  • Licking persons – anxiety, seeking information, can be a reinforced behaviour

Eyes

  • Dilated pupils – fear
  • Whale eye (white showing) – fear, asking for increased distance by turning head NB breed differences, eg Cavalier King Charles, exophthalmic breeds
  • Darting looks – hyper-vigilance, anxiety
  • Not comfortable with eye contact, therefore looking away, averting gaze
  • Hard eye – stare, usually accompanied with freeze (you feel this!)
  • Squinting/blinking/closing eyes – can sometimes indicate stress, anxiety

Ears

  • Ears back against head – appeasement, fear
  • Ears forward – arousal, interest, alertness
  • Ears – position dependent on breed, not all dogs move ears as much
  • Ears twitching – hypervigilance
IMG_5578
Fearful GSD – Ears back, whale eye, dilated pupils, weight back, hackles, woo woo bark
IMG_5580
Fearful GSD – barking, whale eye, paw lift, uneven weight – mainly back, curved approach – asking for peace, hackles raised, woo woo bark – distance increasing signal

Tail

  • Tuck – fear, sometimes extreme so tip of tail touches belly
  • Held high – alertness – dependent on breed
  • Fast wagging, held high – can signal alertness, bite can be about to occur
  • Wagging – willing to engage – not necessarily indicative of happiness
  • Hackles near rump – fear, alertness
  • (the only true tail wag I trust is a whole body tail wag eg “helicopter tail”)

Movement

  • Slow movement or fast movement – both can signal anxiety
  • Failure to rest, lie down after 20 minutes in a room is suggestive of hypervigilance
  • Jumping on, pushing on people – seeking information, provoking response, anxiety
  • Curving body on approach shows appeasement, breaking off of conflict
  • Forward approach – offensive, also breed differences in greeting style
  • Avoidance, or hiding, slinking – anxiety, asking for distance
  • Seeking owner attention – fear, anxiety
  • Fiddle behaviours – eg scratching, sniffing the ground, genital check
  • Sweaty paws – stress
IMG_5541
Fearful Bull Terrier: Dry panting, paw lift, whale eye, ears back, look away, weight back

Body

  • Hackles – physiological arousal – adrenalin release – flight or fight response
  • Paw lift – appeasement, unsure
  • Look at body weight – forward or back? forward – interest, back – withdrawal, fearful. Can be both – sign of conflicted response
  • Muscle trembling/shivering – fear response
  • Startle response – an involuntary response to fear – seen to benign objects is a sign of over reactive fear response
  • Roll over – expose belly – can be a signal to ask for space, cut off engagement
  • Loss of hair, coat dander – anxiety
  • Shake off – seen after something stressful, usually social engagement people or dogs, look at what happened just prior to shake off

Vocalisation

  • Barking – usually a distance increasing signal or designed to alert caregivers although caregivers can distinguish between attention seeking and play barks in known dogs
  • Low bark with growl undertone – WooWooWoo – fearful bark, designed as distance increasing signal – give me space
  • Barking – separation distress – generally monotonal – bark…wait…bark, repetitive.
  • Growling – distance increasing signal, take note
  • Whining, crying – distance decreasing signal – seeking caregivers
  • Howling – distance decreasing signal – seeking caregivers, sometimes stimulated by sirens etc in some dogs, some breeds more inclined
IMG_4566
Worried Mixed breed – lip lick, furrowed brow, averting gaze

 

Dr Nicole Lobry de Bruyn

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s